Who does what during a Belenios election ?
Belenios proposes a verifiable e-voting system. Each voter can check that her ballot is indeed in the ballot box, and any third-party can verify that the claimed result corresponds to the ballots present in the ballot box, and that these ballots come from legitimate voters. The vote secrecy is ensured via the splitting of the decryption key between several authorities (for instance, some members of the committee in charge of the election) with a threshold mechanism (for instance, 3 among 5 are enough to decrypt).
But the nice security properties hold only if everyone performs all the verifications that they are supposed to do. This document lists in detail, for each role in the election (voter, administrator, etc) what must be done at each step.
Instructions for the voter
smart ballot tracker which is a fingerprint of the ballot. This
smart ballot tracker is also sent by email to the voter when he has completed the voting procedure.
In order to check that his ballot is indeed taken into account, the voter must check that his
smart ballot tracker is present in the ballot box by visiting the link
See accepted ballots on the main page of the election. The voter must also vehemently protest if he receives a confirmation email that contains a
smart ballot tracker that is different from the one that was printed on the screen during the voting phase. Somebody probably managed to add a ballot in his name. This can for instance be a hint of an attack by a system administrator who has access to the mailbox of the voter, in the case where both the login / password and the credential are sent to the same address.
Note: a voter can vote several times. Only the last vote is taken into account. The voter must check that the last
smart ballot tracker is in the ballot box. The previous smart ballot trackers are removed from the box.
A voter can also verify the whole voting process. Instead of checking only the presence of his ballot in the ballot box, he can verify the validity of all the ballots, he can monitor the ballot box to check that no ballot disappears (except in case of revote), and finally check that the claim result corresponds to the ballots in the ballot box. For all of this, the voter can follow the auditor instructions below.
Instructions for the trustees
During the setup of the election, it is expected that the trustee saves:
- her decryption key (or PKI key, in threshold mode) (file
private_key.txt). This key must be saved in a secure place (encrypted container, USB stick stored in a closed place, etc) because it protects the secret of the votes (in combination with the decryption keys of the other trustees);
urlof the election;
- (in threshold mode) the fingerprint of her PKI public key, simply called
- the fingerprint of her verification key associated to her decryption key
As soon as the election is ready, it is expected that the trustee checks:
- that her
verification keyis present on the election page, aside her name;
- (in threshold mode) that her PKI
public keyis present on the election page, aside her name.
After the closing of the election, the trustee participates to the computation of the tally. In the case of an election with alternative voting (ordering of the candidates, giving them a grade), the tally starts by a shuffle phase. For this it is expected from the trustee that she
- saves the fingerprint of the ballot box after her shuffle:
fingerprint of your shuffle;
- checks immediately thereafter that this fingerprint is present on the page of the election (to ensure that her shuffle has not be ignored).
In all cases, the tally then proceeds with a phase where the trustee uses her private key to decrypt the result. It is expected that the trustee:
- checks (only for alternative voting) the fingerprint of her shuffle
fingerprint of your shuffleas saved in the previous step is present on the page of the election, aside her name. If this is not the case, the private key must not be used.
- saves the fingerprint of the ballot box to be decrypted:
fingerprint of the encrypted tally.
Once the tally is finished, the results are published on the page of the election. It is expected that the trustee checks that the following data are present on this page, each time associated to her name:
- (in threshold mode) her PKI
- (for alternative voting) the fingerprint of her shuffle;
- the fingerprint of the ballot box to be decrypted
fingerprint of the encrypted tally(in order to check that her private key has not be used to decrypt something else).
Instructions for the credential authority
During the setup of the election, it is expected that the credential authority saves:
- the list of the private credentials: the
creds.txtfile. This file must be saved in a secure place (encrypted container, USB stick stored in a closed place, etc) because it is a protection against ballot stuffing. It will also allow to send again the credential to a voter who has lost it;
urlof the election;
- the voter list
voters.txt. The credential authority must verify with the committee in charge of the election that this list is correct;
- the fingerprint of the voter list:
fingerprint of voters;
fingerprint of the public credentials.
The credential authority is in charge of sending the credentials to the voters. She must include the
url of the election in the message that she sends (by email, by postal mail). For sending the credentials by email, it is possible to use the
contrib/send_credentials.py program included in the Belenios sources (see the auditor section below for how to get the sources). After editing this program according to your settings you can run it :
As soon as the election is open, and at the end of the election, it is expected that the credential authority:
verifies that the number of voters corresponds to the voter list used during the setup and that the fingerprint of the voter list corresponds to the fingerprint saved before, for instance using the following command:
sha256sum voters.txt | xxd -p -r | base64 | tr -d "="
shasum -a256instead of
verifies that the fingerprint of the list of the public credentials corresponds to the fingerprint that has been saved, for instance with:
sha256sum public_creds.txt | xxd -p -r | base64 | tr -d "="
shasum -a256instead of
during the election, the credential authority can, when a voter asks, send him again his private credential if he lost it.
At the end of the election, in order to validate the records, it is expected that the credential authority :
verifies that the voting records given by the administrator corresponds to the ballots in the ballot box. This verification can be done with the command:
belenios-tool compute-voters --privcreds /path/to/creds.txt --url https://url/to/election
The list output by this command must coincide with the one given by the administrator (maybe in a different order).
Once the election is finished and validated, it is expected that the credential authority:
- destroys the file
creds.txt. Indeed, this file gives the link between a voter and his (encrypted) ballot. This link could compromise the vote secrecy in the long term, for instance if the encryption keys become too small for the computing power in the future (or if a quantum computer becomes available…)
Instructions for the committee in charge of the election
At the very least, the election committee visits the page of the election once it is open and checks that:
the number of voters corresponds to the voter list;
voter list fingerprintpublished corresponds to the one that is given (by the system or by the administrator of the election). This fingerprint can be computed with the command:
sha256sum voters.txt | xxd -r -p | base64 | tr -d "="
voters.txtis the voter list. (or
shasum -a256instead of
the list of questions and possible answers correspond to what is expected. These questions and answers are also in the
election.jsonfile that can be obtained by clicking on
parametersin the footer of the election page.
Ideally, the election committee also performs the tasks of an auditor or commissions someone for doing it (a sysadmin of the organization, for instance).
Instructions for the auditor
Anyone who knows the
url of the election can be an auditor. The security of Belenios relies on the fact that the verifications described below are performed by at least one honest person. In order to do these tests, the auditor must use some software. We describe here how to run the verifications using
belenios-tool the sources of which are available from Gitlab Inria and that can be installed under Linux Debian/Ubuntu using
sudo apt install belenios-tool.
Note: these verifications are also run automatically by our servers for the elections that are setup with a maximum security level (external credential authority and at least two external trustees).
During and after the election, the auditor has access to the following files (from the page of the election):
election.json: parameters of the election;
trustees.json: verification keys of the trustees, and their PKI public keys in threshold mode;
public_creds.txt: public parts of the credentials;
ballots.jsons: ballots that have been accepted for inclusion in the ballot box.
During the election, it is expected that the auditor:
verifies that the printed number of voters is correct and that the fingerprint of the voter list is correct (if she has access to this information). See the instructions for the election committee.
verifies the consistency of the ballot box. By copying the 4 files listed above in a directory
/path/to/election, the following command runs all the required verifications:
belenios-tool verify --dir /path/to/election
verifies that the ballot box evolves in a way that is in accordance with the protocol : no ballot must disappear unless it is replaced by another ballot coming from the same credential (case of voter who re-votes). For this, download again the 4 files in a new directory
/path/to/election/newand run the command:
belenios-tool verify-diff --dir1 /path/to/election --dir2 /path/to/election/new
contrib/check_hash.pygiven in the sources does this automatically:
contrib/check_hash.py --url https://url/to/server
Note that the url is the one of the server and not the one of the election; for instance
After the election, the auditor has also access to the
result.json file. It is expected that the auditor:
- run again both verifications mentioned above to verify the consistency of the final ballot box and the consistency with the last saved ballot box.
- verify that the result mentioned in the
result.jsonfile corresponds to the result published on the page of the election. In fact, this verification must be done manually.
- verify that the fingerprints that are present in these files correspond to what is published on the election page as read by the voters and the other participants.
For this last point and all the other tasks (except for the manual verification of the claimed result), a software tool is distributed with the Belenios sources. It requires that
belenios-tool is compiled and installed properly. Then the auditor must create a directory
workdir where the election audit information will be stored as long as they are downloaded, in the form of a
git repository. During the audit phase, the following command must be frequently run:
contrib/monitor_elections.py --uuid <uuid_of_the_election> --url https://url/to/server --wdir <workdir>
and it will download the current audit data, verify them, and compare them with the previous one.
It is possible to redirect the messages with the
--logfile option. Then only abnormal behaviours are reported on
stdout/stderr, which makes it possible to run the command from a
crontab and to be warned in case of problem.
Note: If the
belenios-tool command-line tool is used, the trust in the audit verifications partly relies on the trust in this tool. It is possible to write independent verification software following Belenios specification available here.
Instructions for the administrator of the election
It might look strange but the administrator of the election has not so many verifications to perform. This comes from the fact that the Belenios voting system is designed so that we don’t have to trust the administrator. Security relies on the combined verifications of the different participants: trustees, credential authority, election committee, and auditors.
The important points for the administrator are the following:
- to obtain the voter list, as a list of valid email addresses, one address by voter. This list must be validated by the electoral committee.
- to check and check again these email addresses before starting the election (and even before the sending of the credentials in automatic mode). Once the setup of the election is finished, it is not possible to modify them and there is no alert in case a message could not be sent.
- to verify that all the participants use the same
urlfor the election.
- If the administrator did not commission someone as a credential authority, she must download the list of private credentials (
Download private credentials) in order to be able to send again the credential to a voter who has lost it. For better security, though, it is preferred to commission a third party to play the role of credential authority.
For getting the best security level, the administrator must have:
- a person (the credential authority) in charge of generating the credentials and sending them to the voters (the server can do this itself, but this opens the possibility of a ballot stuffing attack).
- several trustees in charge of protecting vote secrecy: in order to decrypt the individual ballots it is then required to attack all of them (or at least a proportion of them, in threshold mode).